Calendar Of Science

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. So, read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. We've also set up a Google Calendar to which you may subscribe. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life's boring without discovery!


July 1, 1889-The Berlin Urania, the world's first science center, opened to the public.
July 2, 1906-Birthday of physicist Hans Bethe, discovered that stars shine by nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium.
July 3, 1886-Engineer Karl Benz demonstrated the first internal combustion automobile. It reached a top speed of 10 miles per hour.
July 4, 1054-A supernova appeared in the constellation Taurus and was observed by Chinese astronomers, who called it a guest star.
July 5, 1687-Isaac Newton published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, proposed the 3 laws of motion and the law of gravity.
July 6, 1885-Microbiologist Louis Pasteur used a vaccine against rabies for the first time to save the life of a nine year old boy.
July 7, 1752-Birthday of silk weaver Joseph Jacquard, who invented the punch card. He used it to control the operation of a loom.
July 8, 1851-Birthday of Arthur Evans, discovered and excavated Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete, center of Minoan civilization.
July 9, 1894-Birthday of engineer Percy Spencer, who invented the microwave oven.
July 10, 1856-Birthday of Nikola Tesla, built 1st induction motor, which used rotating magnetic field to generate an alternating current.
July 11, 1732-Birthday of astronomer Joseph Jérôme de Lalande, who compiled a catalogue of over 47,000 stars.
July 12, 1854-Birthday of inventor George Eastman, who invented the Kodak camera, which was the first to use rolls of film.
July 13, 1995-NASA's Galileo released a probe into atmosphere of Jupiter, sent back data on temp, pressure, and chemical composition.
July 14, 1965-Mariner 4 took the first close-up photographs of Mars.
July 15, 1915-Birthday of chemist Albert Ghiorso, who led a team which created four of the trans-uranium elements (numbers 103 to 106).
July 16, 1994-1st fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck Jupiter. In all 21 fragments collided with Jupiter over a 6 day period.
July 17, 1894-Birthday of Georges Lemaître, proposed the universe was created by the explosion of what he called the "cosmic egg". Big Bang.
July 18, 1853-Birthday of Hendrik Lorentz, proposed theory that objects in motion contract in the direction they are moving.
July 19, 1799-Near Rosetta, Egypt, Napoleon's troops discovered a basalt tablet inscribed in three languages. The Rosetta stone.
July 20, 1969-Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin became the first people to walk on the moon.
July 21, 1620-Birthday of astronomer Jean Picard, who made the first accurate measurement of the Earth's circumference.
July 22, 1822-Birthday of botanist Gregor Mendel, who discovered the laws of heredity.
July 23, 1928-Birthday of astronomer Vera Rubin, discovered galaxies consist mostly of dark matter, gives off no light or other radiation.
July 24, 1911-Archaeologist Hiram Bingham discovered Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, in the Peruvian Andes.
July 25, 1920-Birthday of biochemist Rosalind Franklin, took 1st X-ray diffraction photos of DNA molecule, showed its helical structure.
July 26, 1894-Birthday of author Aldous Huxley, wrote the novel Brave New World, warned of the dangers of advanced technology.
July 27, 1870-Birthday of Bertram Boltwood, discovered how to determine age of rocks by using rate of decay of the radioactive isotopes they contain.
July 28, 1904-Birthday of Pavel Cherenkov, discovered what is now called Cherenkov radiation.
July 29, 1796-Birthday of engineer Walter Hunt, who invented the safety pin.
July 30, 1889-Birthday of engineer Vladimir Zworykin, invented the type of cathode-ray picture tube used in TV sets and computer monitors.
July 31, 1752-The Schönbrunn Zoo opened in Vienna, Austria. It was the world's first zoo, and it is still in operation.